- Freedom to design with light, a clear design language and minimalist design with high functionality
- The Plug&Play assembly principle guarantees quick and uncomplicated assembly without complex and time-consuming wiring
- Our light inserts can be installed or replaced at any time with a simple "click".
- Light lines of up to 120m can be implemented with just one electrical feed
- Universal and flexible modular system for a wide variety of applications
- Integrated continuous flat cable for the power supply of the light inserts
- All light inserts have been tested and are supplied ready for connection
- Luminaire inserts available in various protection classes
- Light output from 300 - 4000lm/m
- Color temperatures from 2200K to 6500K
- "Made in Germany"
- Reproducible color locations for replacement or supplementary deliveries
Data file in standardized IES (Illuminating Engineering Society) photometric format. It contains data from light measurements and is used to represent lighting situations.
These are so-called Eulumdat (.ldt) files. They are used for lighting planning in DIALux and contain data such as the luminous intensity, light distribution and dimensions of the luminaire.
Luminaires with a light source of up to 1.5 m in length and a maximum total weight of 25 kg can be measured with our in-house far-field goniometer.
Light distribution curves (LVK for short) of the luminaires are created in our light laboratory using far-field goniometers. A LVK is intended to convey a visual two-dimensional impression of the three-dimensional distribution of the light from an LED lamp. This is represented by a polar diagram, with polar coordinates representing the luminous intensity and the radial scaling representing the beam angle.
Furthermore, the luminous flux of the lamp is measured in the unit lumen (lm). The luminous flux is a physiological parameter and indicates the radiant power radiated from a light source in all directions and evaluated by the eye. Lumen is a purely quantitative measure of radiant power. In order to be able to assess the quality, the spectrum must be measured. This is then evaluated according to CRI, CQS and other photometric methods or procedures.
The color quality scale (CQS) describes a quantitative method for determining the color rendering of a light source. A spectrally measured light source is given a numerical value between 0 and 100 using this method. The index of a light source describes the color rendering properties of a comparable reference light source. The method uses 15 specially selected saturated test colors from the Munsell color system, unlike the CRI method where only 8 CIE test colors are used.
The correlated color temperature CCT (correlated color temperature) is the relative color temperature of a white light source and is specified in Kelvin. By definition, it is the temperature of the Plank radiator associated with a particular color of light emanating from the radiation source.
Examples of typical color temperatures are:
- Candle = approx. 1500 K
- Incandescent lamp with 40 W = approx. 2200 K
- Incandescent lamp with 60 W = approx. 2680 K
- Incandescent lamp with 100 W = approx. 2800 K
- Halogen lamp = approx. 3000 K
- Fluorescent lamp = approx. 4000 K
- Morning/afternoon sun = approx. 5500 K
- Midday sun, clouds = approx. 5500 to 5800 K
UGR stands for unified glare rating. It is used to assess (psychological) glare from workplace lighting. UGR is based on a glare formula that takes into account all the luminaires in a system that contribute to the glare impression.
Typical UGR limit values that must not be exceeded:
- ≤16 technical drawing
- ≤19 Reading, writing, schools, meetings, working on the PC
- ≤22 Industry and crafts
- ≤25 Rough industrial work
- ≤28 platforms, hall
The UGR value can only be calculated, but not directly determined by measurement. By definition, no UGR value can be specified for lighting systems with luminaires that have an indirect component of more than 65% and where narrow-beam spots or asymmetrically radiating luminaires are used. A UGR value can only be specified for symmetrically radiating luminaires.
TM30-15 is the evolution of CRI, as CRI only considers 8 reference colors. With TM30-15, a new determination of the color rendering of lamps and luminaires was developed in 2015 by the IES (Illuminating Engineering Society). The basis is that the range of test colors has been expanded from 8 to 99 reference colors (CES) and a new fidelity index Rf has thus been defined. In addition, a circular color space consisting of 16 color locations was defined, which acts as a reference area, which was defined as the gamut index Rg.
TM30-15 Rf Is the fidelity index, since 2015 it has been the new standard for evaluating the color fidelity of a light source. It uses 99 reference colors, which are distributed over the entire color space and are limited to a value range of 0-100. After a light source has been measured using a light spectrometer, the determined color coordinates of the light source are compared with those of the reference colors and the Fidelity Index Rf is formed from this.
TM30 Rg is the gamut index of a TM30-15 measurement. In addition to assessing the similarity of test light sources to the reference by the Fidelity Index Rf, an analysis of color saturation and hue shift is now performed.
A circular reference area of 16 color locations is defined. Deviations from this provide information about the saturation of a light source. Values above 100, unlike the Fidelity Index Rf, are possible.
Lumen/watt describe the light output that an LED has, i.e. the efficiency ratio of the luminous flux (lm) of an LED and the electrical power (W) of the LED. The more efficient an LED is, the higher the lm/W ratio.
CRI (Color Rendering Index) stands for the color rendering index and is abbreviated to Ra. It is a measure of the conformity of the color rendering of an artificial light source in relation to standardized reference light sources. To determine the color rendering, 15 color charts are sampled under both light sources and the color differences are evaluated. The highest color rendering index that can be achieved is Ra=100 (sunlight). The worse the Ra, the worse colors can be resolved by the eye.
CRI R9 corresponds to a saturated red according to DIN 6169. R9 is not taken into account in the CRI calculation, since only the first 8 of 15 reference colors in the color series defined in DIN 6169 are included in the CRI calculation. However, it can be found in the colors that form the basis of the CRI calculation. The R9 value is also important for the representation of skin tones, food and colors. For this reason, we also state the R9 value in our measurements for our luminaire inserts. Just like with the CRI value, higher values are better here.
The beam angle describes the angle at which the light is emitted forwards by a lamp. The beam angle affects the diameter of the light cone created by the LED light. On a polar diagram, it also provides information about whether the LED light is a downlight, an uplight or a combination of both.
CIE stands for Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage, it defined the XYZ standard color system in 1931, which today has global significance in additive color mixing. The CIE is recognized as a standards committee.
With the CIE standard color table, colors can be determined directly with measuring devices without a reference sample. Unlike a color atlas, where the reference colors change over time, colors can now be exactly replicated or measured at any time, based on the mathematical construct of the CIE system's color diagram. The standard color values XYZ provide information about the hue, saturation and lightness of a color.
MacAdam ellipses form the basis for a measurement of color difference thresholds for the purpose of a perceptual color distance assessment. One speaks of a perceptible color difference when two specified colors differ in terms of color, the so-called color distance threshold. And it is precisely these color distance thresholds that are visible via MacAdam ellipses in the CIE standard color table.
Accordingly, MacAdam ellipses are elliptical color locations whose radii and directions depend on the color location of the standard color table and describe a threshold distance. Within MacAdam ellipses there are colors that are perceived by the eye as a single color and they therefore show very clearly the perceived inhomogeneity of the eye.
An indication of the standard deviation of these color locations has been published by the "Standard Deviation of Color Matching", SCDM for short. The differences are only visible in the reflection of the lights and a value of <3 is considered hardly noticeable, i.e. extremely good. A Step-3-MacAdam specification therefore gives, for example, the tolerance of the color temperature seen over the entire binning of just 120K at a color output temperature of 3000K.
Source: Handbook of Lighting Technology, 5th edition Jens Mueller
Theoretically, there are only limitations when it comes to transporting the lights away. Luminaires up to a length of 2.70 m can be built without freight forwarding. Anything beyond that will be delivered by courier. Our standard lengths for luminaire inserts range from 108mm to 2008mm, depending on the LED series and area of application. In addition, our extruded profiles are all supplied in 6100 mm, theoretically luminaire inserts up to 6 m in length are conceivable.
The reason for this is the optical material property "refractive index". This dimensionless physical quantity indicates by which factor the wavelength and the phase velocity of the light are smaller in a vacuum. The refractive index of air is commonly known as 1, the refractive index of polyurethane is ~1.41. If the light from the LED now passes from an optically thinner medium into an optically denser medium, each contained color of the white light is refracted differently because of the different refractive indices. The refraction of violet rays of light is the strongest, that of the red rays the weakest. This dispersion effect is responsible for the breakdown of white light into its spectral color components, which we observe as a color shift or Kelvin drift after the encapsulation of LEDs.
DALI = digitally addressable lighting interface. DALI is a protocol for digital communication between components of a lighting system. In installations, a DALI controller organizes and manages the flow of information and access of all components to the data line.
Since no fast processes have to be controlled in light management, slower data transmission, as with DALI, is absolutely sufficient and also helps to reduce the cost of the DALI components. Despite these deliberate limitations, DALI offers significant functionality that goes far beyond the switching and dimming of individual DALI components. For example, constant light control circuits can be set up via brightness sensors and attractive light scenes can be put together, stored and called up again.
In this context, the status feedback from the peripheral DALI components to the central DALI controller is of particular interest. They enable a targeted error diagnosis or the definition of sensible maintenance intervals for ballasts and lamp technology. A two-wire line, as in previous lighting installations, is primarily used as the medium for data transmission. This can be designed either as a separate line or as use of free cores in a power line. In order to ensure that DALI components from different manufacturers can be exchanged, the DALI protocol is standardized internationally in accordance with IEC 929.
Casambi is an intelligent light control system that uses Bluetooth to control LEDs, halogen lamps or conventional light bulbs. The big advantage of Casambi is that entire light scenes can be programmed and automatically switched using a timer.
A linear regulator is a voltage regulator, it stabilizes an electrical voltage as the operating voltage of a circuit in order to compensate for fluctuations in the input voltage.
Basically, an LED structure consists of the following parts:
- Semiconductors, as a source of radiation and heat
- Optics for determining the radiation characteristics
- Various connection technologies as electrical and thermally conductive components of the chip
- Submount/PCB for heat dissipation
- Housing as a protective function
The appearances of faults in the LED can be divided into several main groups. First, there are catastrophic failures, which are complete or temporary interruptions caused by the chip or faults in the electrical path. The interruption can be caused by mechanical overload and chemical or thermal processes. Another type of catastrophic failure is an electrical short circuit. Electrical overload and silver growth play a role here.
Degradation failures are changes in the optical, electrical or thermal characteristics or a combination of several, with the "light reduction" of the LED being the most obvious degradation. In reality, however, the decrease in light is preceded by other changes in the various parameters. Degradation often precedes total failure. A special type of degradation failures are reversible processes caused by current or other stress. These errors can be caused by specific tests, such as a temperature change test, and can thus be selected.
Examples can be:
- electrical interruption
- bond wire detachment
- Bond wire detachment due to mechanical influences
- Bond wire detachment due to chemical influences
- Electrical short circuit
- Short circuit caused by overload
- Short circuit due to ESD damage
- ESD damage
- chip aging
- Excessive junction temperature
Flicker is the so-called flickering of a lamp. The flickering is caused by the fact that our mains voltage feeds the electronic ballast (operating device) with a frequency of 50 Hz, causing the current to change strength 100 times per second. Thus, maximum brightness or luminance is always at maximum amplitude, regardless of polarity in the case of an incandescent lamp.
Another possibility is flicker caused by Pulse Width Modulation, PWM for short. PWM is the basic idea of today's dimmers. In principle, the dimming of lights is done by switching them on and off extremely quickly in the millisecond range, which is not visible to the human eye. In these processes, frequency-related delays occur which can appear as flickering.
A dimmer is nothing more than a controller that regulates the current or voltage. However, there are delays in the millisecond range in the rules. We perceive this delay as flickering in the LEDs.
In converters, it is a quality feature of the built-in capacitors. If these are of low value, the time in which the polarity of the AC voltage changes cannot be adequately bridged and a so-called flicker occurs during the polarity transition.
Casambi is an intelligent lighting control system that uses Bluetooth to control LEDs, halogen lamps or conventional light bulbs. The big advantage of Casambi is that entire light scenes can be programmed and switched automatically using a timer.
The threshold voltage (also diffusion voltage) is the most important parameter of a diode. The threshold voltage indicates the voltage above which a semiconductor diode becomes conductive in the forward direction. This means that a diode in the forward direction is not always conductive, but only above a certain threshold voltage.
It does not matter in which voltage range a diode is located. The anode of the diode only has to be more positive than the cathode by the threshold voltage in the forward direction. The threshold voltage can therefore be seen as a potential.
PWM is the abbreviation for Pulse Width Modulation. LEDs are dimmed by a pulse width modulated current or voltage. In principle, the LED is switched on and off very quickly and the number of switching operations is the so-called frequency. LEDs are usually switched or dimmed at a frequency of 200-300 Hz, ie the LED is switched on and off 200-300 times per second. The state "switched on" always means 100% on.
The greater the time between the two switched-on states, i.e. the time in which the LED is switched off, the less light is emitted. The lazy human eye then perceives the LED as dimmed. This is possible because the LED reacts without inertia to being switched on and off, ie it does not glow like the filament of an incandescent lamp, for example.
The dividing of the products into the various finely graded classes, which is carried out as an example after production, is referred to as "binning". It is sorted into so-called bins using correspondingly finely graded parameters, i.e. the LEDs are assigned to a group of the same lighting intensity and color locations.
The rank of a circuit board indicates the exact position of the color temperature (color location) according to the CIE standard table within a line of LED circuit boards. It is essential here that only directly adjacent binnings can be used with one another, since the color difference is hardly perceptible there.
The photometric code provides information on the photometric properties of LED modules. It consists of 6 digits, separated by a slash in the middle for some manufacturers. Example based on our LED chipset Victory-6: 927 339
The design of the LED requires the use of optics that bundle the emitted light and thus enable a defined beam angle.
Structures and outlines are underlined with the accent light. Accent lights bring out subtleties in objects and can create reflections and highlights. Accent lighting must be used separately for rooms and objects for a meaningful effect.
Illuminance E is a measure of the light falling on a surface. This is also referred to as luminous flux density. The unit of illuminance is Lux [lx].
Glare affects the visibility of details and well-being. Normally, glare is divided into: unpleasant glare and blinding glare.
The production of state-of-the-art high-performance light-emitting diodes is a complex process in which certain manufacturing tolerances cannot be avoided. For this reason it is necessary to sort the semiconductor elements after production according to their color values and efficiencies. This process is also known as binning. This ensures that the LEDs in a production run (a “bin”) have similar operating characteristics (such as color and efficiency). The tighter the manufacturing tolerances, the better the quality of the individual bins, ie the uniformity of the individual LEDs. This is particularly important if, for example, a large number of the same LEDs are used in a headlight.
Luminous or Light Intensity with the symbol I is a base unit of the International System of Units and is measured in candela (cd). Luminous intensity indicates the luminous flux density (intensity) of a light source in a specific direction, with the luminous intensity being unevenly distributed in different directions. This directional dependency is specified in light intensity distribution curves (LVK), in which the light intensity is shown for different beam angles.
The CE mark is not a test mark but an administrative mark, the affixing of which is required by new EU directives. The CE mark is a condition for the sale of electrical items within the European Union. It serves manufacturers and importers as confirmation that their products meet the requirements of specific EU directives.
In order to change the brightness of an electrical consumer such as a lamp, dimmers are used to reduce the electrical energy.
The standard protocol for the transmission of control signals in lighting technology is the DMX512 protocol. In addition, 512 channels can be controlled per data line, whereby each channel can have an 8-bit value between 0 and 255 (0% - 100%).
The Color Rendering Index (CRI) is the color rendering index used to characterize light sources. It is an index for the naturalness of the colors. The higher the color rendering index, which is referred to as the CRI or Ra value, the more natural colors are rendered and the more pleasant they are perceived. The size of the CRI value can be between 0 and 100 and is decisive for the color rendering of illuminated objects. In other words, only the light colors that are also contained in the light source can also be reflected on the illuminated body. For example, if red is missing, a red towel looks gray.
The color temperature is a measure of the color impression of a light source based on the black body, the unit is Kelvin (K).
The intensity of the radiation generated by a light-emitting diode increases proportionally with the current strength, with the current design limit being a current strength of 20 mA. If this limit is exceeded, excess heat is generated, which reduces the light intensity and the service life of the light-emitting diode.
Describes a process in which white tones tailored to the location, time and task are produced by mixing different white tones – mostly cold and warm white. This means that different color temperatures can be simulated. Sometimes a bit of red is mixed in here for application-specific purposes. This form of color mixing is also known as "Kelvin shifting" and is primarily used to reproduce the light color of lighting in the natural course of the day.
The service life of a light-emitting diode is well over 100,000 hours at an average temperature of 25°C (this corresponds to 11.5 years of uninterrupted operation).
The luminance is a measure of the brightness impression that the eye has of a self-luminous or an illuminated surface. The unit of luminance is cd/m². From a luminance of around 0.75 cd/m², the eyes are dazzled.
The lumen/watt ratio is also referred to as luminous efficacy n.
The luminous efficacy indicates the luminous flux generated in relation to the electrical power used. Luminous efficacy of different light sources:
incandescent lamp 60 W = 12 lm/W
fluorescent lamp 58 W = 78 lm/W
sodium vapor lamp 105 lm/W
The luminous flux of a light source does not radiate evenly on all sides. The light intensity distribution depends very much on the type and design of the light source. Installing the light source in a housing, a lamp or in an optical system also changes the luminous intensity distribution of the light source. A luminous intensity distribution is plotted on a polar diagram, with the light source in the center of the diagram and the luminous intensity decreasing towards the edge of the diagram. The diagram indicates the luminous intensity as a function of a beam angle with the unit lumen.
A MacAdam ellipse, according to David L.(ewis) MacAdam, is that area in the CIExy diagram around a reference hue in which the comparison colors are perceived as being equidistant.
The RAL system includes around 200 colours, divided into high-gloss and matt and distinguished by a four-digit number.
The protection classes describe the type of protection against dangerous body currents in electrical equipment.